Minggu, 01 Mei 2011

Eel Aquaculture

Aquaculture in Indonesia is one important component in the fisheries sector. This is related to its role in supporting the national food supply, income and employment creation as well as bring in revenue from exports. Aquaculture also plays a role in reducing the burden of marine resources. In addition, aquaculture is considered as an important sector to support rural economic development.
Fish eel (Anguilla bicolor), Anguilla spp is one kind of fish behavior in the international markets (Japan, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and some other countries), so this fish has the potential as export commodities. In Indonesia, fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) are found in areas bordering the sea in such southern coast of Java, Sumatra's west coast, east coast of Kalimantan, Sulawesi coast, coastal islands of Maluku and West Irian. Unlike in other countries (Japan and European countries), Indonesia's fishery resources eel (Anguilla bicolor) has not been used, but these fish in both size and seed size is relatively abundant amount of consumption.
The utilization rate of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor), locally (within country) is still very low, because not many knew this fish, so most people in Indonesia have been familiar to eat fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor). Similarly, the utilization of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) for export purposes is still very limited. Resources for fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) whose existence is relatively abundant can be used optimally, it is necessary strategic steps that begins by identifying areas with potential resources eel (seed size and consumption), followed by utilization efforts for both local consumption and for export purposes.
Judging from the large potential for developing aquaculture eel (Anguilla bicolor) in Indonesia, the Indonesian State of the State which has the potential to be an khususya develop fish eel (Anguilla bicolor). In addition Indonesia has a high enough ktersedian seeds in each region, and also 7 out of 18 species of fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) living or found in Indonesia. Needs fishing eel (Anguilla bicolor) of the world can not be met, of Indonesia was still big opportunities for exporting fish to eel (Anguilla bicolor) and add the State foreign exchange.
But the obstacles faced in rearing fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) is quite a lot, such techniques have not been found suitable for rearing fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor), and most importantly there is no way to do hatchery fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) in order to produce seeds good quality. These problems are still looking for any solution or way out for fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) Indonesia can be exported and the known world.
Some halls of brackish water in Indonesia has been trying to develop techniques of rearing fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) (Anguilla bicolor) is appropriate and efficient. Some halls do have a fish rearing eel (Anguilla bicolor) (Anguilla bicolor) in the pool tarpaulin, ground pond with a bamboo fence, swimming pool floating net or concrete. Can take a sample of fish rearing eel (Anguilla bicolor) (Anguilla bicolor) is done in concrete ponds at the UP-PBAP Bangil.
2.1. Classification and morphology of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor)
Kingdom         : Animalia
Phylum            : Chordata
Class                : Actinopterygii
Order               : Apodes
Family             : Anguillidae
Genus              : Anguilla
Species            : Anguilla bicolor (Anonymous, 2008)
Body shape resembles a snake, can reach 50-125 cm long, dorsal and anal fins merge with tail fins, scales very small, located in the skin, the head is longer than the distance between the anal fin spine. In Indonesia is estimated there are at least 5 (five) fish species of eel (Anguilla bicolor), namely: encentralis Anguilla, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, borneonsis Anguilla, Anguilla bicolor Pacifica, and Anguilla celebensis (Affandi, Ridwan, 2001).
2.2.  Nature Live fish eel (Anguilla sp.)
Fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Grown in freshwater (rivers and lakes) until it reaches adulthood, after which the fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Adult stocks into the deep ocean to reproduce. Larvae of the spawning will grow, and gradually drifted into coastal waters. Fish eel (Anguilla sp.) That have reached stage elver (glass eel) will be stocks of marine waters into fresh waters through a river estuary.
Ruaya anadromus larval eel (elver) associated with the seasons. Fish larvae ruaya estimated eel (Anguilla sp.) Commencing at the beginning of the rainy season, but at that season river flow factors and circumstances greatly affect the intensity ruayanya month.
Fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Including carnivorous fish. In general water fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Consuming various kinds of animals, especially benthic organisms such as crustaceans (shrimp and crab), polichatea (worms, larvae of Chironomus and bivalva and gastropods). Fish feeding activity of eel (Anguilla sp.) Usually at night (nocturnal) (Anonymous, 2009a). According to Ali Murtadho (2007) feeding on fish pellets eel (sp.) takes a long time for adaptation because the fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Prefer to eat meals based swimming, not floating.
2.3.  Maintenance Enlargement
a.       Fish Seed eel (Anguilla sp.)
Fish Seed eel (Anguilla sp.) Weighing 15-20 grams per fish with a length of 20-30 cm .. Fish Seed eel (Anguilla sp.) Obtained from the catch of fishermen in open water.
b.      Solid Spreading.
Each pond stocked 100 kg of seed fish eel (Anguilla sp.).
c.       Feed.
Food that is given is artificial feed-shaped pasta with content:
■ 47.93% Protein
10.03% Fat
8.00% crude fiber
BETN 8.32%
Ash 25.71%
Feed given as much as 3% of the total weight of fish feed Convention of 1.96.   With the convention will be obtained an average rate of 1.46 perturnbuhan `% with a mortality of 9.64%.
d.      Maintenance and Harvest Period.
Fish Maintenance eel (Anguilla sp.) On the pond for 7-8 months, and the future. gradually harvest can begin in 4-month maintenance period. Fish size eel (Anguilla sp.) Which, harvested can reach sizes. consumption of 180-200 grams per fish. Maintenance of fish eel (Anguilla sp.) On the pond is one of the alternatives in order to diversify fish farming in ponds. But the application still needs to consider the condition and quality of public waters that are used (West Java Fisheries Service, 2008).
2.4.  Water Quality Good For Fish Enlargement eel (Anguilla sp.)
a.       Temperature.
In the maintenance of fish seed of local eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) the best temperature to spur growth is 29 ° C.
b.      Salinity.
On the maintenance of local eel fish (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) (elver), salinity which can provide good growth was 6-7 ppt.
c.       Dissolved Oxygen.
Minimum oxygen content that can be tolerated by fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 ppm.
d.      pH.
Optimal pH for growth of fish eel (Anguilla sp.) is 7-8.
e.       Ammonia (NH3-N) and Nitrite (NO2-N)
At a concentration of 20 ppm ammonia partial fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Experienced methemoglobinemie and maintained at a concentration of 30-40 ppm the fish eel (Anguilla sp.) Experienced methemoglobinemie (Anonymous, 2009b)

3.1. Discussion on Enlargement of Fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) In The Concrete Pond
Activity professional internship on Enlargement Fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) in the Concrete Swimming is done in units of UP-PBAP Bangil Germination. Activity professional internship on Enlargement Fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) in the Concrete Swimming held from 24 January to 30 January 2011 (for 7 days). Fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) by enlargement of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) eel Anguilla bicolor species, fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) is maintained in the pond with a surface area ± 4.5 to 5 m by 14 units pool enlargement.
Enlargement fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) in units of UP-PBAP Bangil Germination has been done for almost a year more, for one more year of this unit Germination UP-PBAP Bangil fish stocking has been done 3 times. The first stocking took place on October 25, 2010 as much as 1 kg, the second stocking was made on 3 September 2010 in increments of 1 kg and the third spreading took place on 21 September 2010 2.7 Kg. The size of the seed sown by Khairul Annam (2010), not very uniform due to the spread of seed derived from nature that is the catch of fishermen.
a.       Feeding
As a result of seeds that come from nature and not very uniform seed size or degree of homogeneity is less seed seed growth in the enlargement can not be uniform. From this seed seragaman ketida also a result of high levels of cannibalism of fish due to large differences in fish body eel (Anguilla bicolor) is very much different, in this case UP-PBAP Bangil grading work around this by making periodic and regular fish feeding is carried out on fish feeding hours 07:00, 14:00 and 20:00.
Fish feed used in rearing fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) contains at least 38% crude protein, crude fat at least 2%, maximum crude fiber 3%, maximum crude ash 13%, maximum water content of 12%. Feed was given as much as 5% of body weight of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) (biomass of fish) each day. In the feeding with the amount of feeding 5% of fish biomass, there are differences signitifikan feed intake of each pool, for example, 12 pool their feed consumption is very low, Pool 4 consumption is very high while their feed tub 8 and 9, although the size (either anjang or any weight) of fish, eel (Anguilla bicolor) is larger but their feed consumption is normal. There are several factors that caused it one of the most fundamental is no uniformity in seed size and seed growth and other factors on feed consumption rate of fish is different, the influence of growth rate, and level of energy use.
b.      Water Quality Measurement and cleaned
Measurement of water quality in fish rearing eel done every single time in a week. The water quality is measured in fish rearing eel (Anguilla bicolor) of such water pH, salinity, temperature, and NH3. And of these water quality measurements, Seara overall water quality in each week on enlargement relatih terkonrol or do not cross the threshold standard of water quality in fish pembesara eel (Anguilla bicolor).
For water quality can be controlled or not pass the threshold, the implementation is still being done cleaned every once in a week, it aims to remove or reduce organic waste in the pond. According to Khairul Annam (2010), cleaned the fish rearing pond eel (Anguilla bicolor) should not be done 100% but around 30-35%. This is because fish eel has a fairly long process of adaptation, if done cleaned 100%.
3.2. Business Opportunities Sidat Fish
Discharge is now one huge business opportunity. Exports of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) teutama to Mancau, Taiwan, Japan, China and Hong Kong. The price of fish eel (Anguilla bicolor) is very tempting, at the level of fish farmers eel (Anguilla bicolor) utuk elver sold at Rp 250 thousand per kg. For the size range between USD 10-20 grams. 20 thousand to USD. 40 thousand per kg, while the size of the consumption of more than 500 grams for the type of Anguilla bicolor in the local market average Rp. 75.000/kg, type of Anguilla marmorata USD. 125 thousand USD. 175 thousand per kg.
Eel also has many advantages, among them there are vitamin A, the average content of EPA DHA fish higher eel (Anguilla bicolor) 1337 mg/100 grams beat salmon recorded only 820 mg/100 mg/100 grams or 748 grams of mackerel.
Terjemahan :


Perikanan Budidaya di Indonesia merupakan salah satu komponen yang penting di sektor perikanan. Hal ini berkaitan dengan perannya dalam menunjang persediaan pangan nasional, penciptaan pendapatan dan lapangan kerja serta mendatangkan penerimaan negara dari ekspor. Perikanan budidaya juga berperan dalam mengurangi beban sumber daya laut. Di samping itu perikanan budidaya dianggap sebagai sektor penting untuk mendukung perkembangan ekonomi pedesaan.
Ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor), Anguilla spp merupakan salah satu jenis ikan yang laku di pasar internasional (Jepang, Hongkong, Belanda, Jerman, Italia dan beberapa negara lain), dengan demikian ikan ini memiliki potensi sebagai komoditas ekspor. Di Indonesia, ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) banyak ditemukan di daerah-daerah yang berbatasan dengan laut dalam seperti pantai selatan Pulau Jawa, pantai barat Sumatera, pantai timur Kalimantan, pantai Sulawesi, pantai kepulauan Maluku dan Irian Barat. Tidak seperti halnya di negara lain (Jepang, dan negara-negara Eropa), di Indonesia sumberdaya ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) belum banyak dimanfaatkan, padahal ikan ini baik dalam ukuran benih maupun ukuran konsumsi jumlahnya cukup melimpah.
Tingkat pemanfaatan ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) secara lokal (dalam negeri) masih sangat rendah, akibat belum banyak dikenalnya ikan ini, sehingga kebanyakan penduduk Indonesia belum familiar untuk mengkonsumsi ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor). Demikian pula pemanfaatan ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) untuk tujuan ekspor masih sangat terbatas. Agar sumberdaya ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) yang keberadaannya cukup melimpah ini dapat dimanfaatkan secara optimal, maka perlu dilakukan langkah-langkah strategis yang diawali dengan mengenali daerah yang memiliki potensi sumberdaya sidat (benih dan ukuran konsumsi) dilanjutkan dengan upaya pemanfaatannya baik untuk konsumsi lokal maupun untuk tujuan ekspor.
Ditinjau dari besarnya potensi untuk mengembangkan budidaya ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) di Indonesia, maka Negara Indonesia khususya merupaka Negara yang berpotensi mengembangkan ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor). Selain Indonesia memiliki ktersedian benih yang cukup tinggi di setiap daerahnya, dan juga 7 dari 18 spesies ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) hidup atau ditemukan di Indonesia. Kebutuhan ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) dunia belum dapat terpenuhi, dari itu masih besarnya peluang Indonesia untuk dapat mengekspor ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) dan menambah devisa Negara.
Namun kendala yang dihadapi dalam pembesaran ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) ini lumayan banyak, diantaranya belum ditemukan tekhnik yang cocok untuk pembesaran ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor), dan yang paling penting belum adanya cara untuk melakukan pembenihan ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) agar menghasilkan benih yang berkualitas baik. Permasalahan-permasalahan inilah yang masih dicari solusi atau pun jalan keluar agar ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) Indonesia dapat diekspor dan dikenal dunia.
Beberapa balai air payau di Indonesia telah mencoba mengembangkan tekhnik pembesaran ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) (Anguilla bicolor) yang tepat dan efisien. Beberapa balai ada yang melakukan pembesaran ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) (Anguilla bicolor) di kolam terpal, kolam tanah dengan pagar bambu, kolam jaring apung ataupun kolam beton. Dapat diambil contoh pembesaran ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor) (Anguilla bicolor) yang dilakukan di kolam beton di UP-PBAP Bangil.


2.1. Klasifikasi dan Morfologi ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor)
Kerajaan : Animalia
Filum : Chordata
Ordo : Apodes
Family : Anguillidae
Genus : Anguilla
Spesies : Anguilla bicolor(Anonim, 2008)
Bentuk tubuh menyerupai ular, panjang dapat mencapai 50-125 cm, sirip punggung dan sirip dubur menyatu dengan sirip ekor, sisik sangat kecil yang terletak di dalam kulit, kepala lebih panjang dibandingkan jarak antara sirip punggung dengan anal. Di Indonesia diperkirakan paling sedikit terdapat 5 (lima) jenis Ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor), yaitu : Anguilla encentralis, Anguilla bicolor bicolor, Anguilla borneonsis, Anguilla bicolor Pacifica, dan Anguilla celebensis(Affandi, Ridwan, 2001).

2.2. Sifat Hidup Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.)

Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) tumbuh di perairan tawar (sungai dan danau) hingga mencapai dewasa, setelah itu Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) dewasa beruaya ke laut dalam untuk melakukan reproduksi. Larva hasil pemijahan akan berkembang, dan secara berangsur-angsur terbawa arus ke perairan pantai. Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) yang telah mencapai stadia elver (glass eel) akan beruaya dari perairan laut ke perairan tawar melalui muara sungai.
Ruaya anadromus larva Sidat (elver) berhubungan dengan musim. Diperkirakan ruaya larva Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) dimulai pada awal musim hujan, akan tetapi pada musim tersebut faktor arus sungai dan keadaan bulan sangat mempengaruhi intensitas ruayanya.
Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) termasuk ikan karnivora. Di perairan umum Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) memakan berbagai jenis hewan, khususnya organisme benthik seperti crustacea (udang dan kepiting), polichatea (cacing, larva chironomus dan bivalva serta gastropods). Aktivitas makan Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) umumnya pada malam hari (nokturnal)(Anonim, 2009a). Menurut Ali Murtadho (2007) pemberian pakan pellet pada ikan sidat (sp.) membutuhkan waktu untuk adaptasi yang lama karena ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) lebih suka makan makan didasar kolam, bukan terapung.

2.3. Pemeliharaan Pembesaran

a. Benih Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.).
Benih Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) berbobot 15 - 20 gram per ekor dengan panjang 20-30 cm.. Benih Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) diperoleh dari hasil tangkapan nelayan di perairan umum.
b. Padat Penebaran.
Setiap kolam ditebar 100 kg benih Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.).
c. Pakan.
Pakan yang diberikan adalah pakan buatan berbentuk pasta dengan kandungan :Protein 47,93%
Lemak 10,03%
Serat kasar 8,00%
BETN 8,32%
Abu 25,71%
Pakan diberikan sebanyak 3% dari berat total ikan Konvensi pakan sebesar 1,96.
Dengan konvensi tersebut akan diperoleh laju perturnbuhan
rata-rata 1,46`% dengan mortalitas 9,64 %.
d. Masa Pemeliharaan dan Panen.
Pemeliharaan Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) pada kolam selama 7 – 8 bulan, dan masa. panen secara bertahap dapat dimulai pada masa pemeliharaan 4 bulan. Ukuran Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) yang, dipanen dapat mencapai ukuran. konsumsi yaitu 180 - 200 gram per ekor. Pemeliharaan ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) pada kolam merupakan salah satu alternatif dalam rangka penganekaragaman budidaya ikan pada kolam. Namun dalam penerapannya masih perlu diperhatikan kondisi serta kualitas perairan umum yang dipergunakan (Dinas Perikanan Jawa Barat, 2008).

2.4. Kualitas Air Yang Baik Untuk Pembesaran Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.)

a. Suhu.
Pada pemeliharaan benih Ikan sidat lokal (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) suhu terbaik untuk memacu pertumbuhan adalah 29°C.
b. Salinitas.
Pada pemeliharaan Ikan sidat lokal (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) (elver), salinitas yang dapat memberikan pertumbuhan yang baik adalah 6 – 7 ppt.
c. Oksigen Terlarut.
Kandungan oksigen minimal yang dapat ditolelir oleh Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) berkisar antara 0,5 – 2,5 ppm.
d. pH.
pH optimal untuk pertumbuhan Ikan sidat (Anguilla sp.) adalah 7 – 8.

2 komentar:

  1. Pak,

    Bagaimana kabarmu?

    Kami memiliki beberapa pertanyaan seperti di bawah;

    1. Aku perlu untuk memasok Anguilla Bicolor (200/400 gram) untuk jumlah pelanggan di luar negeri mingguan kami sekitar 2 ton dan target harga kami adalah USD7 ~ USD7.50 / Kilogram
    2. Harap beritahu kami tahu nama ilmiah belut Anda, japonica atau bicolor?
    3. Apakah Anda belut liar atau budidaya?
    4. Berapa banyak kuantitas per minggu Anda dapat menyediakan kepada kami?

    Kami sedang menunggu komentar Anda

    Terima kasih dan salam

    Mariaty / Lennon
    +6016-4466816 / BB : 25B1BFAD